The development of ancient Greek civilization began with the development of civilization on the island of Crete. The island of Crete is located on a shipping road between Egypt and Greece, as well as between the regions of Italy and Punicia. The Crete island community is a maritime society with a basic life trading and sailing in the middle sea. The people of the island of Crete have known the form of writing called Minos. The location is very strategic, so it becomes the center of activity in the waters of the eastern Mediterranean. The island of Crete is a connecting area between the central trade areas of the island of Sicily, Egypt, the Levant Coast, Byzantine, and Yunni. Sources of news about the history of the kingdom of Crete were obtained, among others, from the poets of Homerus, especially in the books Illyas and Odyssea, folktales in Greece that are more mythological, the results of archaeological excavations that find the remains of ancient city buildings such capital city of Knossos. The island of Crete is located on a shipping road between Egypt and Greece, as well as between the regions of Italy and Punicia. The Crete island community is a maritime society with a basic life trading and sailing in the middle sea. The name of the minis comes from the name of a great King of this kingdom, namely King Minos. However, Minos Ampai’s writings have not yet been read so that the history of the kingdom of Crete has not been clearly revealed. Cretan belief is polytheism and worships the forces of nature. Deities do not function as creators of disaster, but function as protectors and blessers. In the 15th century BC, the island kingdom of Crete experienced a collapse due to the decline of trade, the release of colonies due to natural disasters. However, since the 15th century BC (1500 BC) there was an invasion and a wave of the invasion of Indo-German nations from central Asia entered the area of the Greek peninsula and finally captured the island of Crete.
In general, the development of Greece can be divided into 4 periods, namely as follows:
· The formation phase of city-states (Polis) which lasts between 1000-800 BC.
· Phase expansion of city-states or the phase of colonization of Greek policies. Expansion of Greek policies westward to southern Italy, while eastward to Asia Minor (Troy).
· The heyday of Greek policies (600-400SM).
· The period of the collapse of Greece (400-300 BC), but Greek culture developed outside the Greek region itself.
During the Culicidae period (5th century BC), Greece consisted of small and large parts in various international forms (simple, federated, federal, confederation) and internal forms (empire, tyranny, oligarchy, constitutional democracy, and others) the most famous in Athens, followed by Sparta and Thebes. A spirit of freedom and burning love made the Greeks able to defeat the Persians, superpowers at that time, in wars that were famous in the history of humanity – Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis, and Plataea.
In the second half of the 4th century BC, many parts of Greece formed an Alliance (Cronnon of Corinth) led by Alexander the Great as President and Commander (Emperor) of the Alliance, the King of Macedonia declared war with Persia, freed the brothers those who were colonized, Ionian, and controlled areas that were further known. Producing a Greek culture from North India to the western Mediterranean and from South Russia to Sudan.